CardioVaScular Diseases and Risk Factors

Some interesting arguments...

Asymptomatic Internal-Carotid-Artery Stenosis: causes and risk of Stroke (NEJM: 342, 1692-1700, 08-06-2000)


Cardiovascular risk factors: when should we treat?
(by Medical Journal of Australia MJA 2003 178 (3): 101-102) - Related Articles on PubMed

Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Vascular Function, Cardiovascular Risk

Comparison of C-Reactive Protein and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in the Prediction of First Cardiovascular Events
(NEJM: 347,1557-1565,14-11-2002)
C-Reactive Protein: to Screen or not to Screen? (NEJM: 347, 1615-1617, 14-11-2002)


Disfunzione Diastolica è un Predittore di Mortalità Totale (EBM Online Italiana)

see also: Atrial Fibrillation and Risk of Ischemic Cerebral Disease, 01-2000
see also: Dabigatran and atrial fibrillation: the alternative to warfarin for selected patients (feb 2012)
see also: Nuovi anticoagulanti orali nella FA e IMA (JACC Italia)
see also: Rivaroxaban-Profilassi dell'ictus in pazienti con FA
see also: Rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or TIA

Is Homocysteine a CHD Risk Factor? The Genetic View
(The Scientist 14[2]:1, Jan. 24, 2000)
Is uric acid related to heart disease? (from Bandolier for EBM)

Malattia Cardiovascolare: ricerca di Segni Precoci in Soggetti Asintomatici (Infomedics 28-11-2003, Am Heart J,102003,146(4),679-685)

Marker di infiammazione e risultati dello studio ALLHAT (AHA, 2002)

TRIALS by categories...


HEART FAILURE: ELITE-II, BEST, CHAMP, and IMPRESS clinical trials - un update (2000, European Journal of Heart Failure)

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE TRIALS - BETA BLOCKERS in HEART FAILURE CLINICAL TRIALS - DIGOSSIN therapy for HEART FAILURE-un update (15-08-2006) - B-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE-A new marker for congestive heart failure - CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS in chronic congestive heart failure

STATINS trials - ACE-INHIBITORS (in Post Acute Myocardial Infarction) - ORAL ANTICOAGULANT THERAPY for Idiopathic Deep Venous Thrombosis-Three Months versus One Year (NEJM 345,165-169,19072001)

Linee Guida per Diabete (a cura di SNLG italiano)
Linee Guida per Ipertensione (a cura di SNLG italiano)
Linee Guida per Ictus (a cura di SNLG italiano)


CVS CLINICAL TRIALS (in alphabetical order):

AASK study (2003) (African American study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension

ABCD study (1998) (NEJM: 338-645; 03-1998 - Appropriate Blood Pressure Control in Diabetes)

ACCOMPLISH study (The Lancet, 18-02-2010)

ACCORD study (statin + fibrate in type-2 diabetes, 2010) - ACCORD Lipid Trial slides

ACTION trial slides (nifedipine) - see also INSIGHT Trial (2000)

AFCAPS/TEXCAPS (1998) (scheda) (Primary prevention of acute coronary events acuti with lovastatin in people with normal cholesterol level) – Review

AFFIRM Trial (2002) (Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management) - AFFIRM Comment 1 - AFFIRM Comment 2 - AFFIRM Bibliography (also regarding Atrial Fibrillation) - AFFIRM-DUTCH Trial ComparisonAFFIRM study, slides

AIRE study: slides (1997) (Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy) - AIRE study: abstract in Medline

ALLHAT study website - ALLHAT study (2002)- Doxazosin and the ALLHAT study  - ALLHAT-ASCOT: expert comment
ALLHAT-LLT study (Rosuvastatin vs Atorvastatin in six weeks trial) - ALLHAT-LLT: slides

ALPINE study (Antihypertensive Treatment and Lipid Profile In a North of Sweden Efficacy Evaluation - Hypertens 2003; 21 :1563-74)

AMIODARONE practical guidelines (2000)

ANBP2 study (a comparative outcome trial over five years of treatment with a an ACE inhibitor-based or diuretic-based regimen)

Antiatherogenic Effects of Antihypertensive Treatment Trials Completed and Ongoing (Alberto Zanchetti, Current Science, 2001)

ARISTOTLE trial (apixaban, 2011) - AVERROES trial (apixaban) - Atrial Fibrillation-Management of Newly Detected,Clinical Practice Guideline(2003)

ASCOT study, Lipid results presentation (2003) ASCOT study

ASPEN study, 2010 (atorvastatin 10 mg vs placebo in diabetes nid)

ATLAS study (1999) (high or low dose of Lisinopril in CHF)

ATP III (Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III)  -  ATP-III update 2004

AURORA study Rosuvastatin in subjects on regular haemodialysis

AVID study (Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators, 1997)

BENEDICT study (Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Renal Disease in Diabetes, 2006)

Beta-blocker trial: metanalysis (BMJ 1999,318,1730-7) - Beta Blockers-major trials - Betablockers, expert consensus document (Eur Heart J 2004-25,1341-1362)

CABG vs Stenting (metanalysis of ARTS-1,SoS,ERACI-2,MASS-2)

CAMIAT study (1997) (Efficacy of Amiodarone in post MI with frequent VPDs) - CAMIAT Slides - CAMIAT-EMIAT Comparison

CAMUS study (Moxonidine in the treatment of overweight and obese patients with the metabolic syndrome, 2004)

CAPPP study (1999) - CAPPP study-subanalysis (1999) (Niskanen et al-Diabetes Care 24; 2091-2096, 2001)

CAPRICORN study (2001) (The Lancet: 357; 05052001) - CAPRICORN study: new evidence

CAPRIE Trial (1996) (phase III study assessing the potential of clopidogrel to prevent ischaemic stroke, MI or vascular death in patients with recent ischaemic stroke, recent MI or peripheral arterial disease) -  SLIDES 

CARDS study (Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes study)  - SLIDES

CARE (Effect of PRAVASTATIN on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels,1996) – CARE (Reduction of Stroke Incidence After Myocardial Infarction With Pravastatin, from Circulation: 1999-99,216-223)

CARMEN study (Carvedilol plus ACE)

CAST-I e CAST-II Trial (1989 e 1992) (Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial)

CHARM trial (Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity Program)
CHARM study (2003) (Candesartan in cardiac failure: comment, 05-12-2003,
CHARM study ADDED, slides - CHARM study ALTERNATIVE, slides – CHARM study OVERALL, slides
CHARM study PRESERVED, slides

CHRONIC HEART FAILURE: What Do Recent Clinical Trials Teach Us? (Reviews in CVS medicine,vol 5,suppl 1,2004)

CIBIS II (1998) (CCardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol study - SLIDES)

COMET Trial (2003) (Carvedilol Or Metoprolol European Trial in CHF) - COMET slides 1 - slides 2 - Comment - CLINICAL TRIALS with CARVEDILOL  

COMETS study (rosuvastatin, 2005)

COMPANION Trial ( Comparison of Medical Therapy, Pacing, and Defibrillation in Heart Failure - NEJM 2004;350,2140-50) - COMPANION Trial (slides) - COMPANION and MADIT-II: a comparison


COPERNICUS study (2001) (Effect of Carvedilol on the Morbidity of Patients with Severe Chronic Heart Failure) - Abstract of the original article from Jama - Comment (Betablockers: expert consensus document (Eur Heart J 2004-25,1341-1362) - BETA-BLOCKERS (major trials) - BETA-BLOCKERS, trials: metanalysis  

CREST trial (stenting vs surgery for symptomatic carotid disease, 2010) - slides - slides (summary)

CURE Trial (2001) (Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events)

DCCT-EDIC study on diabetes  (slides)

DECODE study (Age and Sex specific Prevalences of Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation in 13 European Cohorts) – SLIDES

DIABETE THESAURUS con linee guida per i più importanti problemi del paziente diabetico (a cura di

DISCOVERY study (rosuvastatin, 2005: summary of clinical trials)

DREAM trial (Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication) 

ECAT study (1995) (Hemostatic Factors and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction or Sudden Death-NEJM 332;635-641,09-03-1995)
ELITE study (1997) (Randomised trial of losartan versus captopril in patients over 65 with heart failure - Evaluation of Losartan In The Elderly study) - Comment
ELITE II (2000)
ELITE II and Val-HeFT are different trials: together what do they tell us?

ELSA study (European Lacidipine study on Atherosclerosis)

EMIAT study (sintesi) (1990) - EMIAT study (slides) - CAMIAT-EMIAT Comparison (slides)

ENHANCE trial (Simvastatin-Ezetimibe,NEJM2008)

EPHESUS study (2003) (Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and SUrvival study) - EPHESUS TrialEPHESUS  Trial (slides) 

EPICAL study (Determinants of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Prescription in Severe Heart Failure With Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction - Am Heart J 139(4):624-631, 2000. © 2000 Mosby-Year Book, Inc)

ESPRIT trial (ictus, dipiridamol plus ASA)

ESTEEM study (Efficacy and Safety of the oral direct Thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran in patiEnts with rEcent Myocardial infarction –Lancet 2003;362 (Sep 6):789-97) - ESTEEM study, slides

EUROPA study (2003) (EUropean Trial on Reduction Of Cardiac Events with Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease)
Europa study Results Slides (4)

EUTOPIA study (EUropian Trial on Olmesartan and Pravastatin in Inflammation and Atherosclerosis)

EXPLORER study (EXamination of Potential Lipid-modifying effects Of Rosuvastatin in combination with Ezetimibe versus Rosuvastatin alone)
FACET trial - Fosinopril vs Amlodipine Comparative Treatments study (Pahor et al 105 (4) 457-Circulation) 

FIAS - Familiar Intracranial Aneurysm study (identification of the gene responsible for intracranial aneurisms)

FIRST study (1997) (Gender Differences in Survival in Advanced Heart Failure)

FLORIDA study (Fluvastatina vs Placebo in post-IMA,2002)

FRAMINGHAM Heart study (1996)  -  FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING study (Vitamina D, Ruolo protettivo nelle patologie neurologiche)

GABI trial  - 13-year follow-up of the German angioplasty bypass surgery investigation (2005)

GESICA study 1994) (Abstract) (Gruppo de Estudio de la Sobrevida en la Insuficiencia Cardiaca en Argentina) - GESICA Trial Survival Curves

GISSI (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico, a cura di Ist. Mario Negri - ANMCO) (1986 - 1990 -1995 - 1998) - GISSI-HF

GREACE study (atorvastatin in secondary prevention, 2002) - slides

HART-II study (Circulation, 02-2001: Second Trial of Heparin and Aspirin Reperfusion Therapy)

HATS study (HDL Atherosclerosis Treatment study - NEJM 29-11-2001: 1583-1592)

Heart Failure DIGOXIN, UPDATE - RADIANCE Trial (effect of withdrawing digoxin from patients with heart failure) - RALES study (Randomized ALdactone Evaluation study - The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure)

HELSINKI HEART study (1987) (NEJM, abs, vol 317; n. 20: 1237-45, 12-11-1987) - HELSINKI HEART study ppt

HOPE study (Heart Outcome Prevention Evolution NEJM - Volume 342:145-153 January 20, 2000 Number 3) - MICRO-HOPE study, Slides (MIcroalbuminuria, Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes In the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation) - Microalbuminuria and Cardiovascular Risk

Hormone Therapy and Increased Risk of Stroke (HERS II trial)

HOT CAFE study (2004) (Rate Control vs Rhythm Control in Patients with Nonvalvular Persistent Atrial Fibrillation)

HPS study, scheda (2001) (Heart Protection study) – HPS study, slides

Hypertension Trials in Diabetic Patients (Pahor et al,2001-24 (1) 178,Diabetes Care)

Idiopathic Deep Venous Thrombosis: three months versus one year of oral anticoagulant therapy (NEJM, Vol. 345, N. 3, 19-07-2001)

IMPRESS Trial (Omapatrilat vs. Lisinopril in patients with NYHA grade II-IV heart failure)

INSIGHT Trial (2000) (effects of the calcium-channel blocker nifedipine once daily wit diuretic combination co-amilozide on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients with hypertension) - INSIGHT trial slides - see also ACTION trial slides 

Invest Trial (slides,JAMA, vol. 290, n. 21, 03-12-2003)

Hypertension guidelines (Europe Milan, June 2003)
Hypertension guidelines (USA, 2003)

KIHD study (Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor, 2003)

KUMAMOTO study on diabetes: long term results – KUMAMOTO study, slides

LIFE study (2002) (Losartan vs. Atenolol) - LIFE study slides - Comments - Related Articles (on PubMed)

LIPID study (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events and Death with PRAVASTATIN in Patients with CHD and a Broad Range of Initial Cholesterol Levels) - LIPID study,scheda

LIPS study (Fluvastatin vs Placebo in post-PTCA,JAMA 2002) - LIPS study, conclusioni

 MACH-1 study (2000) (Mortality Assessment in Congestive Heart Failure)

MADIT Trial (1996) ( Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial - NEJM: 335;26-26121996)
MADIT-II Trial 2001) (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial,11-11-1997 - ICD=implantable cardioverter-defibrillator) - MADIT Trial-II (originale da NEJM,2001) - MADIT-II and COMPANION: a comparison

MARRIAGE study (Moxonidine and Ramipril Regarding Insulin and Glucose Evaluation, 2004 

MERCURY-I study - Rosuvastatin

MERIT-HF study Slides (1998) (Metoprolol in Chronic Heart Failure - Lancet 1999-353,2001-07) - MERIT-HF study (esteso)

MIAMI study (1985, abstr. da Medline)

MIRACL study (2001) (The Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Acute Cholesterol Lowering trial: a new frontier for statins? 05-2001)

MOCHA Trial (1996) (Multicenter Oral Carvedilol in Heart Failure Assessment)

MONICA study - Stroke incidence, case fatality, and mortality in the WHO MONICA project - MONICA project-Myocardial infarction and coronary deaths - What MONICA told us about stroke

MOSES study (Morbidity and Mortality after stroke, Eprosartan compared with Nitrendipine for secondary prevention) - slides

MOXCON study (MOXonidine in CONgestive heart failure)

 NORDIL study (2000) (NORdic DILtiazem study: effects of calcium antagonists compared with diuretics and beta-blockers on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in hypertension)

OASIS-5 study (the fifth Organization to Assess Strategies in acute Ischemic Syndromes trial)

ONTARGET study (ON going Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial)  -  ONTARGET  slides 

OPTIMAAL Trial (LANCET 2002; 360: 752-760) - OPTIMAAL and XSOLVD Trial

OVERTURE Trial (opinion of MEDSCAPE) (Omapatrilat Versus Enalapril Randomized Trial of Utility in Reducing Events) - OVERTURE Trial

PART-2 Trial (Use of Ramipril in preventing Stroke-BMJ 2002: 324,699-702)

PEACE Trial ( Angiotensin-Converting–Enzyme Inhibition in Stable Coronary Artery Disease)

PIAF Trial (Pharmacological Intervention in Atrial Fibrillation - Lancet : 25-11-2000-356,1789-94) - PIAF, results slide

PRAISE study: summary (1996) (Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation)
PRAISE-II: no benefit. See: Calcium channel blockers in chronic congestive heart failure)Calcium Channel Antagonists,Morbidity and Mortality-What's the Evidence 

PRECISE Trial (1996) (Placebo-Controlled study of the Effects of Carvedilol in Patients With Moderate to Severe Heart Failure

PREDICT Trial (Efficacy of Pravastatin after Coronary Balloon Angioplasty, 10-1997)

PREVENT Trial (Prevention of REcurrent VENous Thromboembolism - NEJM: 348,1425-1434,10-04-2003) - PREVENT Trial, scheda - PREVENT Trial, slides

PRISM study (Event Rates after Statin Withdrawal in Acute Coronary Syndrome)

PROGRESS study slides (2001) (Perindopril Protection against Recurrent Stroke study - Institute for International Health)

PROSPER study (Prospective study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk) - PROSPER study, slides

PROVE-IT study (Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction)

4S (Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival study) (Randomised Trial of Cholesterol Lowering in 4444 Patients with Coronary Heart Disease) - Summary - Slides

RADIANCE Trial (1993) (effect of withdrawing digoxin from patients with heart failure)  -  DIGOSSIN therapy for heart failure-un update(15-08-2006) 

RALES study (1999) (Randomized ALdactone Evaluation study - The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure)

REGRESS study (Regression Growth Evaluation Statin study, 1995) - con Pravastatina

RENAAL study - Losartan and diabetic nephropathy: commentaries to RENAAL study (from CVD Cardio Vascular Diabetology) - RENAAL in 27 slides

REVERSAL study, scheda (Reversing Atherosclerosis With Aggressive Lipid Lowering) - REVERSAL vs PROVE-IT 

Rischio Cardiovascolare, linee guida europee per la prevenzione-la correzione delle condizioni fisiopatologiche di rischio (da )
Rischio Coronarico: uso delle carte (PNLG)

SAPPHIRE study (carotid stenting, 2002)

SCD-HeFT Trial (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure-2000-2004) - SCD-HeFT Trial, summary slides

SCOPE Study (Hyperthension in the elderly)

SEARCH trial (Effect of folic acid/vitamin B12 on major CVS end points)

SEAS Trial (Simvastatin-Ezetimibe, NEJM2008)

SHARP study (Simvastatin-Ezetimibe,2011) - SHARP trial results-Question and Answers 

SHEP study (1991) (Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program) - SHEP Results
SHEP: Cumulative Stroke Rate slide - SHEP: 4 year mortality and CVD event rates in ISH patients (190), slide - SHEP study conclusions slide

SMILE study (1995) (Effect of the Angiotensin-Converting–Enzyme Inhibitor Zofenopril on Mortality and Morbidity after Anterior Myocardial Infarction - NEJM, 12-01-1995)

SOLVD study slides (1991) (Early Treatment with Enalapril Prevents Heart Failure and Myocardial Infarction and Improves Long-term Survival in Patients with Asymptomatic LVD)  - SOLVD, PROGRESS, LIFE, OCTAVE-Clinical Trials Update 

SPREAD study website (Stroke PRevention and Educational Awareness Diffusion) -  SPREAD update 07-01-2010 

STELLAR study (Rosuvastatina vs Atorvastatina, Simvastatina, Pravastatina) - STELLAR study (slides)

STENO-2 study (Multifactorial Intervention and CVS Disease in type 2 Diabetes) - STENO-2 study (slides) 

STOP-HYPERTENSION-2 trial (Heart,2000) 

SYST-EUR study (1997) (calcium channel blocker in elderly patients with isolated systemic hypertension)  - SYST-EUR II - SYST-EUR I and II: comment

TAXUS II Study (Vascular Responses Within and Adjacent to a Polymeric Paclitaxel-Eluting Stent) 

TRACE study (Trandolapril in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Myocardial Infarction, 1995)

UKPDS study slides (1998) (long-term clinical trial designed to find out how to treat people with Type 2 diabetes to prevent complications and to maintain their health) - UKPDS study and its implications
UKPDS 33 study, slides – UKPDS 34 study, slides – UKPDS 38-39 study, slides

URANUS study (rosuvastatin vs atorvastatin in diabetes,2005)

US Carvedilol study (1995) 

VA-HEFT Trial (1991) (Enalapril vs Hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of CCHF - NEJM,abs-1991,325,303-310)

VAL-HEFT Trial (a Randomized Trial of the Angiotensin-Receptor Blocker Valsartan in Chronic Heart Failure)

VA-HIT Trial (Pubmed, abstract, 03-2001) - VA-HIT (originale da NEJM 341:410-418, N. 6, 05-08-1999)

VALIANT trial (2003) (Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction) - see also: N Engl J Med. 2003 Nov 13;349(20):1893-906.

VERONA DIABETES study - cause-specific mortality in type-2 diabetes (1987-1991)

WASH Trial (Aspirine vs Warfarin in CHF)

WOSCOPS (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention study) - WOSCOPS summary